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According to Vasari, Leonardo collaborated with Verrocchio on his The Baptism of Christ , painting the young angel holding Jesus' robe in a manner that was so far superior to his master's that Verrocchio put down his brush and never painted again, although this is believed to be an apocryphal story.
By , at the age of 20, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of Saint Luke , the guild of artists and doctors of medicine, [i] but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate and live with him.
In January , Leonardo received an independent commission to paint an altarpiece for the Chapel of St. Bernard in the Palazzo Vecchio ,  an indication of his independence from Verrocchio's studio.
An anonymous early biographer, known as Anonimo Gaddiano , claims that in Leonardo was living with the Medici and often worked in the garden of the Piazza San Marco, Florence , where a Neoplatonic academy of artists, poets and philosophers organized by the Medici met.
Leonardo wrote Sforza a letter which described the diverse things that he could achieve in the fields of engineering and weapon design, and mentioned that he could paint.
With Alberti, Leonardo visited the home of the Medici and through them came to know the older Humanist philosophers of whom Marsiglio Ficino , proponent of Neo Platonism ; Cristoforo Landino , writer of commentaries on Classical writings, and John Argyropoulos , teacher of Greek and translator of Aristotle were the foremost.
Also associated with the Platonic Academy of the Medici was Leonardo's contemporary, the brilliant young poet and philosopher Pico della Mirandola. Leonardo worked in Milan from until This would have surpassed in size the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello 's Gattamelata in Padua and Verrocchio's Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, and became known as the Gran Cavallo.
After only a year, Leonardo made a list of his misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton," after he had made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions and spent a fortune on clothes.
In Cesena in , Leonardo entered the service of Cesare Borgia , the son of Pope Alexander VI , acting as a military architect and engineer and travelling throughout Italy with his patron.
Upon seeing it, Cesare hired Leonardo as his chief military engineer and architect. Later in the year, Leonardo produced another map for his patron, one of Chiana Valley , Tuscany, so as to give his patron a better overlay of the land and greater strategic position.
He created this map in conjunction with his other project of constructing a dam from the sea to Florence, in order to allow a supply of water to sustain the canal during all seasons.
Leonardo had left Borgia's service and returned to Florence by early ,  where he rejoined the Guild of Saint Luke on 18 October of that year.
By this same month, Leonardo had begun working on a portrait of Lisa del Giocondo , the model for the Mona Lisa ,   which he would continue working on until his twilight years.
In January , he was part of a committee formed to recommend where Michelangelo's statue of David should be placed.
Leonardo was otherwise free to pursue his scientific interests. In , Leonardo was in Florence sorting out a dispute with his brothers over the estate of his father, who had died in In , Leonardo was working on plans for an equestrian monument for Gian Giacomo Trivulzio , but this was prevented by an invasion of a confederation of Swiss, Spanish and Venetian forces, which drove the French from Milan.
Leonardo stayed in the city, spending several months in at the Medici's Vaprio d'Adda villa. Being frequently visited by Francis, he drew plans for an immense castle town the king intended to erect at Romorantin , and made a mechanical lion, which during a pageant walked toward the king and—upon being struck by a wand—opened its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies.
Vasari describes Leonardo as lamenting on his deathbed, full of repentance, that "he had offended against God and men by failing to practice his art as he should have done.
Within Leonardo's lifetime, his extraordinary powers of invention, his "outstanding physical beauty," "infinite grace," "great strength and generosity," "regal spirit and tremendous breadth of mind," as described by Vasari,  as well as all other aspects of his life, attracted the curiosity of others.
One such aspect was his love for animals, likely including vegetarianism and according to Vasari, a habit of purchasing caged birds and releasing them.
Leonardo had many friends who are now renowned either in their fields or for their historical significance. They included the mathematician Luca Pacioli,  with whom he collaborated on the book Divina proportione in the s.
Leonardo appears to have had no close relationships with women except for his friendship with Cecilia Gallerani and the two Este sisters, Beatrice and Isabella.
Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret. His sexuality has been the subject of satire, analysis, and speculation. This trend began in the midth century and was revived in the 19th and 20th centuries, most notably by Sigmund Freud in his Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood.
Melzi, writing to inform Leonardo's brothers of his death, described Leonardo's feelings for his pupils as both loving and passionate.
It has been claimed since the 16th century that these relationships were of a sexual or erotic nature. Court records of , when he was aged twenty-four, show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy in an incident involving a well-known male prostitute.
The charges were dismissed for lack of evidence, and there is speculation that since one of the accused, Lionardo de Tornabuoni, was related to Lorenzo de' Medici, the family exerted its influence to secure the dismissal.
Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his fame rested on his achievements as a painter.
A handful of works that are either authenticated or attributed to him have been regarded as among the great masterpieces. These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities that have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics.
By the s Leonardo had already been described as a "Divine" painter. Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are his innovative techniques for laying on the paint; his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology; his interest in physiognomy and the way humans register emotion in expression and gesture; his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition; and his use of subtle gradation of tone.
All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa , the Last Supper , and the Virgin of the Rocks.
Leonardo first gained attention for his work on the Baptism of Christ , painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two other paintings appear to date from his time at Verrocchio's workshop, both of which are Annunciations.
It is a " predella " to go at the base of a larger composition, a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated.
Although previously attributed to Ghirlandaio, the larger work is now generally attributed to Leonardo. In the smaller painting, Mary averts her eyes and folds her hands in a gesture that symbolised submission to God's will.
Mary is not submissive, however, in the larger piece. The girl, interrupted in her reading by this unexpected messenger, puts a finger in her bible to mark the place and raises her hand in a formal gesture of greeting or surprise.
In this painting, the young Leonardo presents the humanist face of the Virgin Mary, recognising humanity's role in God's incarnation.
In the s, Leonardo received two very important commissions and commenced another work that was of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition.
Two of the three were never finished, and the third took so long that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment.
One of these paintings was Saint Jerome in the Wilderness , which Bortolon associates with a difficult period of Leonardo's life, as evidenced in his diary: "I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die.
His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction.
Wasserman points out the link between this painting and Leonardo's anatomical studies. The other remarkable feature is the sketchy landscape of craggy rocks against which the figure is silhouetted.
The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama also appear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi , a commission from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto.
It is a complex composition, of about x centimetres. Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture that forms part of the background.
In Leonardo went to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de' Medici in order to win favour with Ludovico il Moro, and the painting was abandoned.
The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks , commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception.
The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers , was to fill a large complex altarpiece. The painting demonstrates an eerie beauty as the graceful figures kneel in adoration around the infant Christ in a wild landscape of tumbling rock and whirling water.
The painting was eventually finished; in fact, two versions of the painting were finished: one remained at the chapel of the Confraternity, while Leonardo took the other to France.
The Brothers did not get their painting, however, nor the de Predis their payment, until the next century.
Leonardo's most remarkable portrait of this period is the Lady with an Ermine , presumed to be Cecilia Gallerani c. The ermine plainly carries symbolic meaning, relating either to the sitter, or to Ludovico who belonged to the prestigious Order of the Ermine.
It represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death, and shows the moment when Jesus has just said "one of you will betray me", and the consternation that this statement caused.
The writer Matteo Bandello observed Leonardo at work and wrote that some days he would paint from dawn till dusk without stopping to eat and then not paint for three or four days at a time.
Vasari describes how Leonardo, troubled over his ability to adequately depict the faces of Christ and the traitor Judas , told the Duke that he might be obliged to use the prior as his model.
When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterization,  but it deteriorated rapidly, so that within a hundred years it was described by one viewer as "completely ruined.
Leonardo devised a dynamic composition depicting four men riding raging war horses engaged in a battle for possession of a standard, at the Battle of Anghiari in Michelangelo was assigned the opposite wall to depict the Battle of Cascina.
Leonardo's painting deteriorated rapidly and is now known from a copy by Rubens. Among the works created by Leonardo in the 16th century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa or La Gioconda , the laughing one.
In the present era, it is arguably the most famous painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's face, its mysterious quality perhaps due to the subtly shadowed corners of the mouth and eyes such that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined.
The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called " sfumato ," or Leonardo's smoke. Vasari, who is generally thought to have known the painting only by repute, said that "the smile was so pleasing that it seemed divine rather than human; and those who saw it were amazed to find that it was as alive as the original.
Other characteristics of the painting are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details; the dramatic landscape background, in which the world seems to be in a state of flux; the subdued colouring; and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils laid on much like tempera , and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are indistinguishable.
In the painting Virgin and Child with St. Anne , the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape, which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful"  and harkens back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle.
What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne.
She leans forward to restrain the Christ Child as he plays roughly with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice.
The trends in composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese. Leonardo was a prolific draughtsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention.
As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi , The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper.
It is the first [documented] time where a landscape was drawn just for the sake of it. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National Gallery, London.
It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St.
Anne in the Louvre. Other drawings of interest include numerous studies generally referred to as "caricatures" because, although exaggerated, they appear to be based upon observation of live models.
Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them.
Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery.
A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli , hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de' Medici, in the Pazzi conspiracy.
Like the two contemporary architects Donato Bramante who designed the Belvedere Courtyard and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder , Leonardo experimented with designs for centrally planned churches, a number of which appear in his journals, as both plans and views, although none was ever realised.
Renaissance humanism recognised no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are sometimes considered as impressive and innovative as his artistic work.
They were made and maintained daily throughout Leonardo's life and travels, as he made continual observations of the world around him.
There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirlpools, war machines, flying machines and architecture.
These notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes, were largely entrusted to Leonardo's pupil and heir Francesco Melzi after the master's death.
Having many more such works in his possession, Orazio gifted the volumes to Magenta. News spread of these lost works of Leonardo's, and Orazio retrieved seven of the 13 manuscripts, which he then gave to Pompeo Leoni for publication in two volumes; one of these was the Codex Atlanticus.
The other six works had been distributed to a few others. Most of Leonardo's writings are in mirror-image cursive.
Leonardo's approach to science was observational: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail and did not emphasise experiments or theoretical explanation.
Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although he did teach himself Latin.
In the s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book Divina proportione , published in The content of his journals suggest that he was planning a series of treatises on a variety of subjects.
A coherent treatise on anatomy is said to have been observed during a visit by Cardinal Louis d'Aragon's secretary in While Leonardo's experimentation followed scientific methods, a recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as a scientist by Fritjof Capra argues that Leonardo was a fundamentally different kind of scientist from Galileo , Newton and other scientists who followed him in that, as a " Renaissance Man ", his theorising and hypothesising integrated the arts and particularly painting.
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